India is acknowledged for its unique Art and Architecture differentiating with the different Culture & Invaders Era. Indian artisans & now with the support of Government we find in India upliftment in the field by Arts and Crafts Board, Office of Indian Affairs. Indian arts enhance based upon culture, religious & market demand aspect. Indian art can be categorised into several periods as Ancient period, Islamic ascendancy, Colonial period and Independence and the postcolonial period. Indian artist always explore to create supply of something new based upon the market demand.
Actually the handicrafts of India draw inspiration from religious, social, and economic factors. The handicraft tradition is very popular. Handicraft is a craft / art in which crafts are created by hands or small equipment’s. Basically it is a traditional strength & art which involve family members or a group of people to create crafts. The handicrafts tradition initiated from the Indus Valley Civilization, where they use to make jewellery, sculpture, weaving, pottery, etc. from terracotta, bones, stone and local alloys & metal. In India we can observe from ancient handicraft to modern style of handicrafts creation. During the Vedic ages, we can find evidences of creating varied handicrafts such as wood crafting weaving & utensils etc. There are available evidences to authenticate that in every era whether Vedic age to Gupta age, during Mauryan Empire, and also medieval India there is tradition of creating arts and handicrafts. In India we can observe variety of arts and handicrafts every 500 kilometres with a distinct and its own delicacy. As the popular & locally created Indian Art and Handicrafts are stonework, clay craft, wood work, textile, ivory, leather, mat weaving, grass & plants usage , toys, Ayurveda and local spices etc.
Indian Fresco –
This art is created on a wet surface. Step by Step Creation process takes place – initially created; on the wet surface thereafter the batter of limestone mixture is applied over the stone. The process use to take number of days to set. Then the painting is done with organic pigments created out of plants & animal residue & later eggs material were added to give new binding & gloss dimension (Mughal era something like Secco or fresco secco style of painting done on dry plaster using binding materials like Egg, glue or oil to attach pigment to the wall). Indian Fresco is a very famous Indian art form. Some of the popular themes of Indian Fresco are temple walls in Pundarikapuram of Kerala and the cave temples of Ajanta and Ellora. Rang Mahal of Chamba (Himachal Pradesh) is another famous site of historic Dogri fresco with wall paintings depicting scenes of Draupti Cheer Haran, and Radha- Krishna Leela. This can be seen preserved at National Museum at New Delhi in a chamber called Chamba Rang Mahal.
Rock Cut Arts-
With the era of Buddhism Indian art get its new style in architectural growth & creation pattern. They bring renowned rock cut caves found in India. Most Importantly Rock that is not part of the structure is removed until the only rock left makes up the architectural elements of the excavated interior. Indian rock-cut architecture is mostly religious in nature.
These ancient and medieval structures exhibit significant achievements of structural craftsmanship & engineering. The monolithic Kailash Temple is treated to be the best of this type construction. Kailash was the last masterpiece rock-cut excavated temple. Number of rock reliefs, relief sculptures carved into rock faces, has been excavated outside the caves or at other sites. New discoveries of relatively small rock-cut sites, mostly Buddhist, continue to be made in the 21st century, especially in the Deccan Region.
Tribal Art –
Metalwork, Pottery, paper arts etc, are varying forms of tribal art. This is one of the most ancient, local art form in India. It belongs to the very old tradition style in India and we can find every region of India have its own pattern and showcasing. We can also see the touch in the traditional Style of paintings like Bihar Madubani, south Indian styles etc.
Pottery can be created by hands as well as by wheel thrown. During the times of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, people were involved in pottery making for the toys, utensils and even houses were made of mud and clay with beautiful designs. Pottery is one of the popular art forms in India. In this kind of art, clay batter should be in right proportion. Pottery can be found in various kinds, sizes and shapes. Gujrat & Southern part of India is still retaining the style with new flavour of beautification.
Wood work – In India, wood craft is most sought after as every household use wooden furniture and basic doors etc. made of word & try to beautify them their own way. You could find here a large variety of wood sculpture and designs & Style according to the state they belong like Kashmir, Andhra, Gujrat, Tamil nadu, Bihar etc.
Stone Work – The people of Indus Valley Civilization in India were first to make stone sculpture. During Maurya dynasty’s stone art came into light. India has a huge history in stone work. It’s beautiful large carved walls, pillars, temples; statues give you fine examples of Indian stone work. Marble, soapstone, basalt, graphite, sandstone etc. are some of the popular stones used by Indian craftsmen to make their creations.
Beadwork – Beadwork in India is linked around 9th century B.C that reefing to the braiding beads into hairs & horsetails. There was use of dried berries, grey Indian corn, teeth, bones, claws, or sometimes sea shells when they traded with coastal tribes the very first reference with the evidence about bead weaving is around 1300 A.D. And the earliest mass-produced seed beads were noted to be the Indo-Pacific beads of India and associated regions.
Beadwork techniques are mainly categorized into loom and, stringing, off-loom weaving, bead embroidery, bead crochet, bead tatting & bead knitting.
Beads are used to make jewellery or other personal adornment, wall hangings and sculpture.
Beads are used for as good luck talismans, religious purposes, for barter, and as medicinal or curative agents.
Assemblage Art: It Is an artistic style created in the form of three dimensional element out of the substrate. It is like a collage & a kind of stuff created out scrap & always have anti aesthetic art work or sculpture. It is a sought of visual art only.