IVF & Infertility Treatment in India
In vitro fertilization
In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a complex series of procedures used to help with fertility or prevent genetic problems and assist with the conception of a child.
During IVF, mature eggs are collected (retrieved) from ovaries and fertilized by sperm in a lab. Then the fertilized egg (embryo) or eggs (embryos) are transferred to a uterus. One full cycle of IVF takes about three weeks. Sometimes these steps are split into different parts and the process can take longer.
IVF is the most effective form of assisted reproductive technology. The procedure can be done using your own eggs and your partner’s sperm. Or IVF may involve eggs, sperm or embryos from a known or anonymous donor. In some cases, a gestational carrier — a woman who has an embryo implanted in her uterus — might be used.
Your chances of having a healthy baby using IVF depend on many factors, such as your age and the cause of infertility. In addition, IVF can be time-consuming, expensive and invasive. If more than one embryo is transferred to your uterus, IVF can result in a pregnancy with more than one fetus (multiple pregnancy).
Why it’s done
In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a treatment for infertility or genetic problems. If IVF is performed to treat infertility, you and your partner might be able to try less-invasive treatment options before attempting IVF, including fertility drugs to increase production of eggs or intrauterine insemination — a procedure in which sperm are placed directly in your uterus near the time of ovulation.
Sometimes, IVF is offered as a primary treatment for infertility in women over age 40. IVF can also be done if you have certain health conditions. For example, IVF may be an option if you or your partner has:
- Fallopian tube damage or blockage. Fallopian tube damage or blockage makes it difficult for an egg to be fertilized or for an embryo to travel to the uterus.
- Ovulation disorders. If ovulation is infrequent or absent, fewer eggs are available for fertilization.
- Endometriosis occurs when the uterine tissue implants and grows outside of the uterus — often affecting the function of the ovaries, uterus and fallopian tubes.
- Uterine fibroids. Fibroids are benign tumors in the wall of the uterus and are common in women in their 30s and 40s. Fibroids can interfere with implantation of the fertilized egg.
- Previous tubal sterilization or removal. If you’ve had tubal ligation — a type of sterilization in which your fallopian tubes are cut or blocked to permanently prevent pregnancy — and want to conceive, IVF may be an alternative to tubal ligation reversal.
- Impaired sperm production or function. Below-average sperm concentration, weak movement of sperm (poor mobility), or abnormalities in sperm size and shape can make it difficult for sperm to fertilize an egg. If semen abnormalities are found, your partner might need to see a specialist to determine if there are correctable problems or underlying health concerns.
- Unexplained infertility. Unexplained infertility means no cause of infertility has been found despite evaluation for common causes.
- A genetic disorder. If you or your partner is at risk of passing on a genetic disorder to your child, you may be candidates for preimplantation genetic testing — a procedure that involves IVF. After the eggs are harvested and fertilized, they’re screened for certain genetic problems, although not all genetic problems can be found. Embryos that don’t contain identified problems can be transferred to the uterus.
- Fertility preservation for cancer or other health conditions. If you’re about to start cancer treatment — such as radiation or chemotherapy — that could harm your fertility, IVF for fertility preservation may be an option. Women can have eggs harvested from their ovaries and frozen in an unfertilized state for later use. Or the eggs can be fertilized and frozen as embryos for future use.
Women who don’t have a functional uterus or for whom pregnancy poses a serious health risk might choose IVF using another person to carry the pregnancy (gestational carrier). In this case, the woman’s eggs are fertilized with sperm, but the resulting embryos are placed in the gestational carrier’s uterus.
Urology, also known as genitourinary surgery, is the branch of medicine that focuses on surgical and medical diseases of the male and female urinary-tract system and the male reproductive organs.
Urology is a part of health care that deals with diseases of the male and female urinary tract (kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra). It also deals with the male organs that are able to make babies (penis, testes, scrotum, prostate, etc.). Since health problems in these body parts can happen to everyone, urologic health is important.
Urology is known as a surgical specialty. Besides surgery, a urologist is a doctor with wisdom of internal medicine, pediatrics, gynecology and other parts of health care. This is because a urologist encounters a wide range of clinical problems. Type of urology, such as:
- female urology, which focuses on conditions of a woman’s reproductive and urinary tract
- male infertility, which focuses on problems that prevent a man from conceiving a baby with his partner
- neurourology, which focuses on urinary problems due to conditions of the nervous system
- pediatric urology, which focuses on urinary problems in children
- urologic oncology, which focuses on cancers of the urinary system, including the bladder, kidneys, prostate, and testicles
Causes of Condition
Here are some of the most common causes of urology problems:
- Infection– Infection such as urinary tract infection (UTI) can happen to males though it’s more common among women. Harmful microorganisms such as bacteria can get into the body through the anus until they invade the urethra, making it painful to urinate. Although UTI is easy to treat, when left unmanaged, it can cause serious complications including septic shock that results in organ failure and death.
- Obstruction– Kidneys, for example, can develop stones that may block the flow of urine to the bladder. Obstructions can also occur in the vas deferens and prostate.
- Lifestyle factors– Obesity is currently one of the biggest threats on chronic kidney disease (CKD) risk. CKD is usually associated with elevated blood pressure and diabetes, which are also related to obesity. A person may suffer from CKD without any symptom. Unfortunately, once it’s discovered, it is usually already in the late or end stage.
- Heredity– Polycystic kidney disease is an inherited disorder characterized by the presence of several fluid-filled sacs in the kidneys. They can multiply and grow large. They can also break causing severe bleeding and pain when urinating. They can damage the kidneys in the long run as they promote high blood pressure.
- Diuretics or medications– Certain medications such as diuretics promote the production of urine, which may lead to excessive urination or incontinence. Some drugs can also be harmful to the kidneys in the long term.
- Food– Alcohol and caffeine may also act as diuretics.
- Congenital– Many abnormalities can affect the male genitalia such as micropenis and chordee (in which the penis’s head is curved either downward or upward).
- Physiological– Male infertility can be caused by poor or low sperm production, ejaculation issues, and hormonal imbalances.
- Unknown causes– Some disorders don’t have a definite cause. A good example is interstitial cystitis, which is also called painful bladder syndrome. Researchers point to an autoimmune disease, heredity, genetic defect, and infection as possible causes.
- Difficulty of passing urine
- Abnormal volume of urine (may be too much or too small)
- Lower back (flank) pain
- Pain in the lower abdomen
- Passing off blood during urination (hematuria)
- Pain during urination
- Frequent urge to pass urine
- Feeling of not emptying the bladder
- Nausea and vomiting
- Change of urine color and smell
- Enlarged prostate
- Urine leakage
- Loss of bladder control (incontinence)