Neuro Surgeries in India
Procedures of Neurology
|Brachial Plexus Injury||Spinal Fusion||Deep Brain Stimulation||Brain Tumor Treatment|
|VP Shunt||Laminectomy||Scoliosis||Spine Stimulation|
Neurosurgery is the specialty that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, surgical treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders which affect any part of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and cerebrovascular system.
Some Important Neuro Problems:
- Trauma to the head and spinal cord
- cerebral (brain) aneurysms and strokes
- Tumours of the brain, spine and skull
- Degenerative spinal conditions and prolapsed discs
- Movement disorders such as Parkinson’s disease
- Conditions that affect cerebro-spinal fluid flow such as hydrocephalus
- Pituitary tumours and neuroendocrine disorders
- Certain psychiatric disorders
- Congenital conditions such as spina bifida
Sub-specialties of neurosurgery are:
- General neurosurgery – General neurosurgery is involved with conditions that are of neurological in nature particularly neurological trauma and neurological emergencies, i.e intracranial haemorrhage.
- Spine neurosurgery – Mainly for old-aged patients. This involves problems in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spines, these problems include arthritis in the spinal discs, spinal cord compression caused by trauma, or spondylosis. Symptoms of spinal problems include balance deficiency, numbness and tingling in the hands and the feet.
- Paediatric neurosurgery – includes facial anomalies, congenital spine defects and tumours
- Peripheral nerve surgery – Common peripheral nerve surgeries include carpal tunnel decompression for the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome as well as peripheral nerve transposition; this branch of neurosurgery is responsible for the treatment of nerve entrapment conditions.
- neuro-oncology – the management of brain and spinal tumours
- functional neurosurgery – the management of a range of conditions including epilepsy, movement disorders and cerebral palsy
- Vascular and endovascular neurosurgery – This involves the diagnosis and treatment of aneurysms, carotid stenosis, strokes, vasospasms, and spinal malformations. Surgical treatments of such conditions are now conducted using minimally invasive techniques such as angioplasty, stenting, and embolization.
- traumatology – to treat head injury
- skull-base surgery – disorders of the skull-base and skull-base tumour.
Aside from these branches, neurosurgery also involves the different surgical methods for diagnosing and treating neurological conditions. Nowadays, there has been a shift from conventional neurosurgical methods to more modern alternatives. While the conventional method requires open surgery where the surgeon opens up the skull to access the brain, newly developed methods now allow specialists to surgically treat neurological conditions through smaller openings. These methods make use of microscopes, endoscopes, and most recently, neuroradiology methods. Open surgery techniques are now usually reserved for traumatic cases or emergencies.
Microscopic neurosurgery, microscopic technology to enable surgeons to treat affected areas of the brain through a smaller opening, simply by magnifying the treatment area. Nowadays, even complex procedures such as clipping an aneurysm or complex spine surgeries such as microdiscectomy and laminectomy can be performed through microscopic surgery, making neurosurgical treatment less invasive.
Endoscopic neurosurgery is also widely in use today in the treatment of pituitary tumours, cerebrospinal fluid leakage, hydrocephalus, colloid cysts, and many others.
Neuroradiology now plays a huge role in both the diagnosis and treatment of neurological conditions. Neuroradiology technologies include:
- Computer-assisted imaging computed tomography, or more popularly known as a CT scan
- Magnetic resonance imaging or MRI
- Positron emission tomography or PET
- Magnetoencephalography or MEG
- Stereotactic radiosurgery